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Web Design Special Characters

While designing a website, it is inevitable, that at some point you will need to add a special character to a page, whether it be a currency symbol, a copyright sign, or a foreign character. It is important that you use the correct code to display these characters. Failure to do so will often result in invalid code and, in some hosting environments, the character will be replaced with a square or question mark.

Below is a table of special characters and their corresponding html codes…

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Symbol HTML Code Description
& & Ampersand
© © Copyright
® ® Registered Trademark
™ Trademark
° ° Degree
′ Minutes
″ Seconds
" " Quotation
… Elipses
‘ Opening Single Quote
’ Closing Single Quote
‚ Low Single Quote
“ Opening Double Quote
” Closing Double Quote
„ Low Double Quote
• Bullet
– Short Dash
— Long Dash
‾ Overscore
¦ ¦ Broken Vertical Bar
· · Middle Dot
‹ Single Left Angle Quotation
› Single Right Angle Quotation
« « Double Left Angle Quotation / Guillemet
» » Double Right Angle Quotation / Guillemet
HTML Currency Symbols in Web Design
Symbol HTML Code Description
€ Euro
£ £ Pound
¥ ¥ Yen
¢ ¢ Cents
¤ ¤ General Currency Sign
HTML Maths Symbols in Web Design
Symbol HTML Code Description
¼ ¼ Quarter
½ ½ Half
¾ ¾ Three Quarters
¹ ¹ Superscript 1
² ² Superscript 2 / Squared
³ ³ Superscript 3 / Cubed
< &lt; Lesser Than
> &gt; Greater Than
&le; Less or equal
&ge; Greater or equal
± &plusmn; Plus Minus
÷ &divide; Division Sign
× &times; Multiplication sign
&minus; minus Sign
&permil; Per Mille
&infin; Infinity
&forall; For All
&part; Part
&exist; Exists
&empty; Empty
&nabla; Nabla
&isin; Isin
&notin; Notin
&ni; Ni
&prod; prod
&sum; Sum
&lowast; Lowast
&radic; Square Root
&prop; Proportional To
&ang; Angle
&and; And
&or; Or
&cap; Cap
&cup; Cup
&int; Integral
&there4; Therefore
&sim; Similar to
&cong; Congruent to
&asymp; Almost Equal
&ne; Not Equal
&equiv; Equivalent
&sub; Subset of
&sup; superset of
&oplus; Circled Plus
&otimes; Circled Times
&perp; Perpendicular
&sdot; Dot Operator
HTML Miscellaneous Symbols in Web Design
Symbol HTML Code Description
¡ &iexcl; Inverted Exclamation Mark
¿ &iquest; Inverted question mark
&para; Paragraph (pilcrow)
§ &sect; Section Mark
&dagger; Dagger
&Dagger; Double Dagger
µ &micro; Micro Sign
¸ &cedil; Cedilla
¨ &uml; umlaut Mark
¬ &not; Logical Not sign
ª &ordf; Feminine Ordinal Indicator
º &ordm; masculine Ordinal Indicator
¯ &macr; Spacing Macron
˜ &tilde; Tidle
ˆ &circ; Modifier Letter Circumflex accent
&larr; Left Arrow
&rarr; Right Arrow
&darr; Down Arrow
&uarr; Up Arrow
&harr; Left Right arrow
&crarr; Carriage Return Arrow
&lceil; Left Ceiling
&rceil; Right Ceiling
&lfloor; Left Floor
&rfloor; Right Floor
&loz; lozenge
&spades; Spades
&clubs; Clubs
&hearts; Hearts
&diams; Diamonds
HTML Foreign  Characters in Web Design
Symbol HTML Code Description
À &Agrave; Grave accented capital A
Á &Aacute; Acute accented capital A
 &Acirc; Circumflex accented capital A
à &Atilde; Tilde capital A
Ä &Auml; Umlaut marked capital A
Å &Aring; Capital A ring
Æ &AElig; Capital AE ligature
à &agrave; Grave accented small a
á &aacute; Acute accented small a
â &acirc; Circumflex accented small a
ã &atilde; Tilde small a
ä &auml; Umlaut marked small a
å &aring; Small A ring
æ &aelig; Small ae ligature
Ç &Ccedil; Cedilla capical C
ç &ccedil; Cedilla small c
È &Egrave; Grave accented capital E
É &Eacute; Acute accented capital E
Ê &Ecirc; Circumflex accented capital E
Ë &Euml; Umlaut marked Capital E
è &egrave; Grave accented small e
é &eacute; Acute accented small e
ê &ecirc; Circumflex accented small e
Ì &Igrave; Grave accented capital I
Í &Iacute; Acute accented capital I
Î &Icirc; Circumflex accented capital I
Ï &Iuml; Umlaut marked capital I
ì &igrave; Grave accented small i
í &iacute; Acute accented small i
î &icirc; Circumflex accented small i
ï &iuml; Umlaut marked small i
Ñ &Ntilde; Tilde capical N
ñ &ntilde; Tilde small n
Ò &Ograve; Grave accented capical O
Ó &Oacute; Acute accented capital O
Ô &Ocirc; Circumflex accented capital O
Õ &Otilde; Tilde capital O
Ö &Ouml; Umlaut marked capital O
Ø &Oslash; Slashed capital O
ò &ograve; Grave accented small o
ó &oacute; Acute accented small o
ô &ocirc; Circumflex accented small o
õ &otilde; Tilde small o
ö &ouml; Umlaut marked small o
ø &oslash; Slashed small o
Ù &Ugrave; Grave accented capital U
Ú &Uacute; Acute accented capital U
Û &Ucirc; Circumflex accented capital U
Ü &Uuml; Umlaut marked capital U
ù &ugrave; Grave accented small u
ú &uacute; Acute accented small u
û &ucirc; Circumflex accented small u
ü &uuml; Umlaut marked small u
Ÿ &Yuml; Umlaut marked capital Y
Ý &Yacute; Acute accented capital Y
ÿ &yuml; Umlaut marked small y
ý &yacute; Acute accented small y
HTML Latin  Characters in Web Design
Symbol HTML Code Description
Π&OElig; Latin capital ligature OE
œ &oelig; Latin small ligature OE
ƒ &fnof; Latin small f with hook
Š &Scaron; Latin capital S with caron
š &scaron; Latin small letter s with caron
HTML Icelandic  Characters in Web Design
Symbol HTML Code Description
Ð &ETH; Capital Eth
ð &eth; Small Eth
Þ &THORN; Capical thorn
þ &thorn; Small thorn
HTML German  Characters in Web Design
Symbol HTML Code Description
ß &szlig; Small sharp s
HTML Greek  Characters in Web Design
Symbol HTML Code Description
Α &Alpha; Capital Alpha
α &alpha; Small Alpha
Β &Beta; Capital Beta
β &beta; Small Beta
Γ &Gamma; Capital Gamma
γ &gamma; Small Gamma
Δ &Delta; Capital Delta
δ &delta; Small Delta
Ε &Epsilon; Capital Epsilon
ε &epsilon; Small Epsilon
Ζ &Zeta; Capital Zeta
ζ &zeta; Small Zeta
Η &Eta; Capital Eta
η &eta; Small Eta
Θ &Theta; Capital Theta
θ &theta; Small Theta
Ι &Iota; Capital Iota
ι &iota; Small Iota
Κ &Kappa; Capital Kappa
κ &kappa; Small Kappa
Λ &Lambda; Capital Lambda
λ &lambda; Small Lambda
Μ &Mu; Capital Mu
μ &mu; Small Mu
Ν &Nu; Capital Nu
ν &nu; Small Nu
Ξ &Xi; Capital Xi
ξ &xi; Small Xi
Ο &Omicron; Capital Omicron
ο &omicron; Small Omicron
Π &Pi; Capital Pi
π &pi; Small Pi
Ρ &Rho; Capital Rho
ρ &rho; Small Rho
ς &sigmaf; Small Sigmaf
Σ &Sigma; Capital Sigma
σ &sigma; Small Sigma
Τ &Tau; Capital Tau
τ &tau; Small Tau
Υ &Upsilon; Capital Upsilon
υ &upsilon; Small Upsilon
Φ &Phi; Capital Phi
φ &phi; Small Phi
Χ &Chi; Capital Chi
χ &chi; Small Chi
Ψ &Psi; Capital Psi
ψ &psi; Small Psi
Ω &Omega; Capital Omega
ω &omega; Small Omega
ϑ &thetasym; Theta Symbol
ϒ &upsih; Upsilon Symbol
ϖ &piv; Pi Symbol

Article by Roxane Lapa of .COZA Web Design

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